Ultrahigh-energy photons up to 1.4 petaelectronvolts from 12 γ-ray Galactic sources

  • This work is the result of the contributions and efforts of all members and institutes of the LHAASO Collaboration under the leadership of Zhen Cao, who is the spokesperson of the LHAASO collaboration. Most of the listed 32 institutes participate in the construction of the LHAASO detectors. In particular, H.H.H. leads the design and construction of KM2A, whose scintillator detector array is constructed by teams led by X.D.S. and muon detector array is constructed by teams led by G.X. KM2A is operated by teams led by J.L. and X. Zuo. The calibration of LHAASO detectors is led by H.H.H. with the participation of groups from IHEP, led by H.K.L. and X. Zuo; from Shandong University, led by C.F.F.; from the University of Science and Technology of China, led by C. Li; and from Southwest Jiaotong University, led by H.Y.J. The CR event reconstruction is led by S.Z.C. with the participation of groups from IHEP, Shandong University and Southwest Jiaotong University. The data analysis by groups from IHEP and Shandong University is led by S.Z.C.; from Sun Yat-sen University by P.H.T.T.; and from the University of Science and Technology of China by R.Z.Y. The team at Purple Mt Observatory, led by Yi Zhang, performs an independent cross-check of the analysis. R.Z.Y. and R.Y.L. lead the interpretation of the results, with participation of the groups from Nanjing University, led by Y.C. and X.Y.W.; from Yunan University, led by L. Zhang; from Purple Mt Observatory, led by Q.Y. Zhen Cao, F.A.A. and B.D.P. supervised the data analysis and interpretation and also lead the paper writing. S.M.L. and D.d.V. contribute as co-chairs of the editorial board of LHAASO. Many groups participated in the analysis procedures, including the groups from Mahidol University, led by D.R.; from Shanghai Jiaotong University, led by H. Zhou; from Shanghai Observatory, led by Z.X.W.; from Peking University, led by Zhuo Li; from Guangxi University, led by E.W.L.; from National Observatory, led by W.W.T.; from Wuhan University, led by P. H. T. Tam; and from Yunnan Observatory, led by J.C.W. All other groups—from the University of Chinese Academy of Science and Tianfu Cosmic ray Research Center, led by Zhen Cao; from State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, led by Q.A.; from Tsinghua University, led by Y.N.L.; from the National Space Science Center, led by Z.B.S.; from Guangzhou University, led by J.H.F.; from Hebei Normal University, led by S.W.C.; from Zhengzhou University, led by H.D.L.; from Sichuan University, led by C.W.Y.; from Tibet University, led by T.L.C.; and from the Institute for Nuclear Research and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, led by Yu.V.S.—contributed to detector construction and to reviewing the final version before submission.

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